Information technology and its concept
What is Information Technology Today, the world is witnessing tremendous development in the process of transferring data and information, and the exchange of text and media in high quality and in a short time?
Information technology is the scientific application of science and knowledge in all fields, or the use of computers, secondary storage media, networks and computer equipment for the creation, processing, storage, protection and exchange of all types of electronic information.
The concept of information technology is the collection, processing, analysis and dissemination of reading, audio and visual information employing different technological devices. The section responsible for classifying, processing, analysing, transmitting and retrieving data when needed is called the IT department.
History of Information Technology
Information technology was evident in 1940 when Harvard University created the first supercomputer called Mark 1, and then in 1975 Bill Gates introduced an operating system to MITS compatible with their devices,
hence Microsoft began to emerge, and in 1993 became The Internet is available for free use. The development of information technology continued, especially in the early part of the present century;
The first smart device was created that allows anyone to access information by tapping the screen with fingers. The development in this field continues unabated, and has taken various forms; some of them are specific to the institutions and institutions, and what appears in the form of multiple applications, and some works through the Internet and web pages.
Information technology consists of several components, the most important of which are:
- Individual communications: such as messages and telephone.
- Group communication: books and movies.
- Audio: Like radio.
- Image Technology: Static and motion pictures. Computer Can process data quickly and accurately.
The most important factors
Driving the use of computers in society The most important factors that encourage the use of computers are the following:
- Increased workload: This has led to the need to control the massive amount of work and documents resulting from the expansion of employment.
- The need to increase efficiency: by saving time and effort, and increasing accuracy in documenting data.
- New services and functions: Information technology provided opportunities to create new features to manage and process processes and information.
- Sharing and Collaboration: Sharing and sharing of information via computers is more comfortable.
Common IT functions
- The field of information technology has several features, including the following:
- Computer programmer: A person who converts the initial design of the program into a set of written instructions so that it is easier for the computer to execute.
- Technical Support Officer: Assists staff in technical matters and handling programs and equipment.
- Database Manager: A person who is responsible for creating, managing and protecting against databases.
- Network Engineer: It is responsible for connecting electronic devices and ensuring that they interact with each other within the organisation, and also keeps them protected from intrusions and ensures that they work most efficiently.
- Web Developer: Designs websites with different programming languages.
- Information Systems Analyst: A person who combines business and technology management with interest in the technical aspects of the organisation to improve the quality of work.
Areas of using information technology in daily life
Through the use of information technology can be abandoned by traditional systems intricate and replaced by easy techniques, reducing the effort, time and labour, and areas of the use of technology in daily life, including the following:
Lending between libraries: With the ease of knowledge of the contents of libraries through data records and electronic and digital indexes, cooperation between libraries has become more comfortable, facilitating the exchange of books between libraries in various parts, in addition to facilitating the process of publishing books electronically. There are many other areas in which technology has entered, such as industry, pharmacy, commerce, agriculture, and internal security, as well as in the field of telephone and network communications.
Education: Computer is used in classrooms and teaching, and digital equipment and mobile applications have helped students learn faster.
Field management: used to increase productivity and increase marketing opportunities.
Banks and banks: used in the central administration of banks, thereby reducing the burden and reduces the effort in addition to the provision of labour.
Medicine: providing databases for patients around the world, as well as monitoring patients’ health conditions and the development of symptoms.
The term technology is often circulated, where we hear it in schools and universities as curricula taught to students, and listen to it in new technical images in the world of industries and technology, and contains this term on two parts, the first techno which means technical skill in dealing with things, and the second loggia, which means science and foundations In dealing with ideas, the word technology was associated with the word information to create a new concept that emerged on the horizon of scientific science and became called information technology.
Definition of ICT
Is all the bases, methods and steps followed when communicating, disseminating information, and doing calculations using all electronic devices prepared for this, such as computer and various means of communication within the constants and scientific laws developed for that?
Information and Communication Technology Sections
Physical Section The devices used in the process of communication from computers and desktops and phones to the wires used in making networks that are connected with all accessories to complete the transfer of information from one side to another.
Scientific or mental section It focuses on programming languages, computer engineering, and artificial intelligence that manage the communication process according to steps to be determined by the administrator or engineer.
The importance of ICT
Since the Industrial Revolution, man has started to develop machines and equipment that facilitate his work. With the advent of information technology, humanity has leapfrogged a qualitative leap towards development on the one hand and prosperity on the other.
After the technology has entered the world of business, agreements and transactions are established from anywhere in the world and very quickly. On the educational side: The boards, chalk, and heavy books that burden the student
were replaced by a computer board containing all the courses, which provided greater comfort for the student and brought him into the world of development from a young age. Some schools in the world have begun to teach the basics of programming languages as basic subjects in schools and thus create a scientific and cultural awareness of the student
and make him an innovative person working to make the applications and devices he wants on his own. On the technical side, the introduction of information and communication technology after the industrial revolution led to the development of the machines used and connected to the
web to send orders from various sectors, which increased the productivity of industries and reduce the time required to achieve the desired goal. On the political and military side, information technology played a major role in the power and domination of the state. The major powers sought to develop means of communication and means of obtaining information about the enemy.
The amount of information available became a dangerous weapon that could destroy entire countries. Encrypted is one of the essentials of the country’s military power.
Technology is a common term that carries more than one meaning. It can be abbreviated as the application of science. Many scientists have mentioned many definitions of the word technology. Scientific, a means or method of thinking about how to use the skills and
information; in order to obtain a certain result to satisfy the human need and increase its capacity, and technology Greek origin of the word, and consists of two sections; the first section:
Techno means art and industry, res P Second: Loggia means science or study. The technology consists of three basic elements: inputs, processes, and outputs. Technology encompasses all processes of design and
management development. The world is now totally dependent on technology, a process that touches people’s lives and is now indispensable. Daily for organisations, big companies, or ordinary people.
Definition of Information Technology
The primary information is human-based, and it was necessary to collect information, disseminate knowledge, and ease of communication, human beings were able to develop new science, thanks to information technology enables the human to communicate easily;
The latest radical change in, and information technology term strongly repeated at all levels, which is the manifestation of public and private investment in the field of science and engineering which enables the human from which to conduct extensive and significant
changes in society, and is considered an application to solve the problems faced by For the human being. Know IT (Information Technology) as the study, design and development of information , especially related to computer science systems; so that they use the latest
technology transfer and storage, protection, processing, transfer and data recovery, and provide a good level of information security and networks, and create solutions for companies relating to all aspects of life; whether Political, economic, social or otherwise. Information
technology is concerned with technology and its use in computer science, especially in large organisations, expressing the abbreviation of information technology (information technology), and information technology deals with technical devices, especially computer and software, and at present no institution does not dispense with information technology,
Each organisation has an information technology department which is one of the most important departments, and the names given to this section in companies: Service Provider Organization (MSP), or Information Service Department (IS).
The benefits of IT
The information technology many benefits can not be counted, but not all the results are beneficial; it can be said as a double-edged sword, it consists of a combination of benefits and disadvantages; it is determined results by the person in how to use them to get results;
either good that contributes to The development of the person and the community, or the bad that is the scourge of it, and technology has helped to create a civilised way of life, and no one can deny the benefits of information technology, including these benefits:
Saving time, this feature is at the forefront of the advantages. Transfer information through a device that is an effective alternative to providing information in traditional ways using paper and pen, or contact the person by phone, the information is available all the time to its users
and can be retrieved whenever you want. Increase the productivity of goods and services, and reduce the hard and dangerous work on human life. Developing our lives in all fields, be it education, medicine, aerospace, engineering, construction, computers and mobile devices,
research and exploration, etc. To develop self-learning abilities, in order to become developed and fulfilled, one must learn, try and experiment. Facilitate the tasks of scientific research and access to information in the shortest time and less expensive than before; the Internet
provides, for example, to all access to the information they want to know without any difficulty. The remarkable increase in the ways of social communication between people; the emergence of modern means of global technology systems; and the great interest in social
media to make this communication as easy as possible. Providing thousands of jobs for many of its employees; it opened the way for them to set up their own companies, and the concept of e-commerce was introduced.
Information Technology Features
Save time, deliver information, and then transfer it from your computer. You gain skills, expand your horizon, and enhance your creativity. Develops individual self-learning abilities.
It gives the individual a sense of comfort when collecting information; Develops an individual problem-solving technique that cannot be solved by conventional methods due to the vast amount of information.
The perception of the individual is achieved because the computers used in information technology provide the individual with the different data and manifestations that he understands through his senses.
Allows an individual to be able to connect to any information they want at any time through an Internet connection.
The scope and extent of information technology
Film thumbnails that reproduce the information for publication and storage, known as a reproduction of recorded formats. Computer applications used in many libraries and
information and documentation centres, which rely on word processing, words and databases. Remote communication applications, which rely on the transmission of shapes and sounds.
6 Characteristics of information
- Accuracy: Accuracy in terms of good quality of information, and the corresponding amount of information.
- Clarity: Information should be free from ambiguity, ambiguity and undue confusion with other topics.
- Timing: The time it takes to provide and retrieve information to the beneficiary.
- Applicability: The advanced information should be examined, verified and verified in terms of its validity and time.
- Validity: means the suitability of the information to the needs of the beneficiary.
- Takaful or inclusiveness: intended to secure all aspects needed by the beneficiary.
4 IT Applications
- E-government: It is meant to manage public transactions and services provided to citizens in the state electronically, through the use of computers instead of using traditional methods such as paper or move from one department to another.
- E-Health: By providing the sites of specialists in various branches of medicine, providing medical consultations without going to the doctor’s office, and providing information on various disea
- E-commerce: It is an application of information technology that benefits companies through profit and access to markets on a large scale, and benefits the consumer in terms of providing services and goods, and accessibility.
- E-learning: By providing electronic content to the learner in the easiest ways and using modern electronic media, such as computers.
Information systems, data logs and people come together in the configuration of the information system, in addition to the information systems include a number of manual and non-manual operations, and this type of systems focus on data and processed for output as
information ready to use, as can be defined as a number of elements overlapping with each other Some of them, which play an important role in attracting and processing information,
and then stored on a particular topic in a systematic manner, and this is done in full for the purposes of providing support to the decision-maker and motivate him to make the right
A decision in addition to organising the organisation, analysing its status and enabling it to build a concept. Here, the current and future are crucial.
Study of information systems
It is worth mentioning that information systems are ranked among university disciplines. Universities and colleges are awarded certificates in the study of information systems. Relevant fields such as administrative, accounting, geographic information systems and others.
Information Technology (IT), the American Information Technology Group came up with a precise definition of information technology, which indicated that it is the study of computer-based information systems and design, and then start to develop and activate and then
support, especially applications, and focuses IT mostly on computers and applications Software to provide after storage and protection and thus safe recovery. It is recognised that information technology focuses on technology in all its fields, whether it is related to
information management or processing, especially in those organisations that are classified as large. And then transferred to use when needed, and the most prominent names of the sections of information technology are the Department of Information Systems and Management Information Systems and others.
The difference between information systems and information technology
The difference between information systems and information technology is that the first focuses on the need to know the systems and analysis and that it is a process of planning or converting systems of various forms, whether computer, normal or administrative to
information and systems easy to deal with, and includes three essential things where you create important reports to run the work Information technology focuses all its attention on technologies and the technology resort to the results of the analysis that comes from the
information organiser and apply it to the available technology Or technical matters.
Information Technology Departments and their uses
Information technology is divided into three main sections:
Computer data processing, business software, and decision support. Companies use the concept of information technology in the areas of computing and business, where they work
to create their own sections, for use in management As for individuals’ use of the concept of information technology (IT), they sometimes misunderstand the meaning and use it for several computer-related works
You can join IT business areas by studying specific disciplines, such as Specializations in architecture and engineering management. Online IT Fundamentals. Specialisations in computer science and information systems. Industrial study certificates.
IT applications in public health
Information technology uses GIS applications in the field of public health, so hospitals use the application of information systems in the production of information, by identifying a problem by measuring its information by specialists such as cancer, and make some medical
interventions through the implementation of specific plans This application can also be used to make interactive mapping of disease-threatened geographic areas and to disseminate it to people. For dangerous diseases and control their spread.
IT in business
Companies use information technology to process their data, such as various computing processes such as payroll printing, creating websites that enable customers to communicate directly to make requests for different products or services, as well as companies using their
own database applications so that employees can access information At any moment, from anywhere, they can also use information technology and devices to set up networks that
connect administrative levels so that you can share information in the easiest way and quickly without any hassle. IT accelerates communication between different business divisions, thus organising the business environment, enabling them to edit, print, and store documents.
Mobile technology helps make calls and provides remote video conferencing, helping to save time, cost, and effort.
Information Technology in Society
Information technology offers many benefits to different categories of society:
Information technology has contributed to the development of the agricultural sector, so that the farmer can sell his products directly from the farm using the Internet, by creating its own
Website and customers request their orders through this site, which benefits both the farmer and the consumer. IT has helped deliver online learning services so that students can learn
from anywhere in the world and access basic learning materials using smartphones that support applications that enable students to access various learning topics.
Evolution of Computer Information technology
Is involved in scientific computing, as it works to make computer applications faster and more efficient, and develops computer simulation and modelling systems, so there were several generations during which the computer developed from the first generation to the fifth generation:
- The first generation: emerged during the period 1946-1959, where the hollow tubes were used as components of memory and the central processing unit. These pipes caused a huge rise in temperature, and thus increased the likelihood of a computer explosion, and they were so high that only the giant companies owned such computers at the time, and they dealt with machine language – zero and one.
- Second Generation: Appeared during 1959-1965, the vacuum tubes were replaced by a small transistor with a much higher speed, and reduced energy consumption. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as primary memory, along with magnetic tape and magnetic disks, as secondary storage devices. Computers are also dealing with high-level software languages, such as FORTRAN COBOL, and have added batch processing and multiprogramming.
- Third Generation: It appeared during the period 1965-1971, in which integrated circuits (IC’s) were used instead of the transistor. Each IC contains a large set of transistors, capacitors and resistors linked together in an electrical circuit. Jack Kilby is the person who invented the IC’s. This invention has made computers more efficient, reliable and smaller in size as well. The
- fourth-generation: emerged during the period 1971-1980, in which the large integrated circuits (VLSI) containing 5000 thousand transistors in a single chip. The price of the computer has become much lower than previous generations, in addition to reducing its size, increasing its power and reliability.
- The fifth-generation: emerged in 1980 and is the current generation used, which resulted in the production of central processing units containing ten million electronic parts inside these processors. This generation of computers relies on parallel processors, as well as artificial intelligence programs that make the computer think like humans.
Why is Technology important?
Technology is important because it is used in all areas of life, especially the process. When we reflect on our daily routine and try to count the tools of technology, then we will realise the importance of technology in our lives, such as the use of cars, computer, Internet, telephone,
television, electrical machinery and many others. Technology can be defined as all changes or modifications made by man to the things that exist in nature, in addition to the tools of
various kinds, which he created to facilitate the work done by him, as the technology includes many aspects of life such as food, medicine, housing, Dress up, communication, transportation, sports, science and many more.
Technology is widely used in our areas of life, namely:
- Communication Technology: This technology includes the facilitation of communication and human communication, such as video communications, cell phones, and pagers.
- Household Technology: Includes all household activities, such as frozen and dried food, microwave, and electrical machines for homes.
- Information Technology: This technology includes all computer-based applications, such as e-mail, the Internet, home and laptop computers, digital scanners and imaging tools.
- Entertainment and Media Technology: Includes all areas of entertainment that appear in a digital frame, such as satellite, television, online publications, radios, and video games.
- Medical Technology: Includes all tools, research, and medical studies to solve the problems of the human body and animals resulting from diseases and injuries, such as artificial organs, vaccines, pulse officer and others.
- Educational Technology: It includes the application of scientific principles in order to facilitate and simplify learning and education.
Types of technique
Capital-saving technology, often used in developing countries. The technique for labour-saving, often used in developed countries. Neutral technology, which increases capital and labour.
It is an independent science of its origins, theories and objectives. It is an applied science aimed at applying knowledge. Belong to human life. Integrated, i.e. includes inputs, processes and outputs. Comprehensive for all development, design and management processes. Systematic, i.e. concerned with systems and their outputs. Purposeful to solve problems. Continuous and sophisticated.
Technical development requirements
Advances in Physical Sciences. Scientists and specialists must be responsible. Science fiction must be available. Urgent need As the saying goes “need a mother of invention.”
Develop innovation in the analysis and study of problems and find appropriate solutions. Bring pleasure and joy to practical and scientific life. Application of public safety rules. Rationalise the use of available resources in nature to solve problems using unused raw materials. Emergency risk reduction.