Computer History and Stages of development
Stages of computer development and history The 1st Generation(1940 – 1956) lasted from 1937 until 1946, where the first electronic digital computer was created in 1937 by Dr John Atanasov and Clifford Berry, was called Atanasoff-Berry Computer, and in 1943 was the equipment (The Colossus) for the army, Other developments in the computer industry continued until 1946, when the first general-purpose digital computer (ENIAC) was established. It weighed 30 tons and contained 18,000 hollow valves used in processing.
2nd Generation (1956 – 1963)
The second generation began in 1959, and continued until 1964, where Bell Labs developed transistors in the mid-1950s, which contributed to the performance of many of the tasks of the vacuum valves, but it was characterized by its small size; Reducing the size of the computer , in addition to being faster, more efficient, and less electricity-consuming, the first computer with a “transistor” was produced in 1959.
3rd Generation (1964 – 1971)
The third generation era began in 1965, where integrated circuits were manufactured in computers, which are small chips of silicon-containing many transistors and small circuits, and the advantage of integrated circuits that they are smaller, cheaper, and more effective than the transistor, in addition to It made computers faster, smaller, and more powerful than ever.
4th Generation (1972 – 2010)
The fourth-generation began in 1971 and continued to the present, and this feature is characterized by the construction of microprocessors that contained thousands of integrated circuits in a single silicon chip, for example, the Intel chip 4004 developed in 1971 contains all the components of the computer, such as Mainframe, memory, and I / O units. In 1981, IBM introduced the first computer for home use, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. As the power of microcomputers grew in this generation, they were interconnected to form networks, leading to the development of the Internet.
5th Generation (2010 to present) incorporates the concept of artificial intelligence, which is still under development.
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